The Passive Voice in Latin: ( ch. 30) Grammatica

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Title: The Passive Voice in Latin: ( ch. 30)

To form the Passive Voice for the Present , Imperfect and Future Tenses

  1. Form the Active voice, remove the personal endings and add the passive voice personal endings.

Active Passive
o or
s ris
t tur
mus mur
tis mini
nt ntur

e.g. porto portor moneo moneor capio capior
portas portaris mones moneris capis capieris
portat portatur monet monetur capit capitur
portamus portamur monemus monemur capimus capimur
portatis portamini monetis monemini capitis capimini
portant portantur monent monentur capiunt capiuntur
portabam portabar monebam monebar capiebam capiebar
portabo portabor monebo monebor capiam capiar
portabis portaberis monebis moneberis capies capieris
portabit portabitur monebit monebitur capiet capietur

NOTE: when -ris is the ending ( you singular form) and the preceding vowel would normally be -i, change the i to e.

The perfect system does not work in the same manner. For this group you form the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect active forms with the 3rd principal part of the verb and the appropriate endings.

Perfect of to be fui, fuimus

fuisti fuistis
fuit fuerunt

Pluperfect of to be fu + imperfect of to be - eram etc. = fueram, fueras, fuerat, fueramus, fueratis, fuerant
Future Perfect of to be fu + future of to be - ero etc. = fuero, fueris, fuerit, fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint

NOTE: 3rd plural in the perfect is - erunt, in the future perfect it is - erint, deviating from the 3rd pl. form of to be in this instance.

For the Passive Voice of the three forms you will use the 4th principal part of the verb…the perfect passive participle and the verb to be. Here the verb to be will stand alone and not be used as an enclitic as it had been in the active voice forms. Since the participle is an adjective the ending will change to agree with the subject. For the sake of example I will illustrate with alternate ending choices in parentheses)

Perfect: (I) have been carried

portatus (-a, -um) sum portati (-ae, a)sumus
portatus (-a, -um) es portati (-ae, a) estis
portatus (-a, -um) est portati (-ae, a) sunt

PluPerfect: (I) had been carried

portatus (-a, -um) eram portati (-ae, a) eramus
portatus (-a, -um) eras portati (-ae, a) eratis
portatus (-a, -um) erat portati (-ae, a) erant

FuturePerfect: (I) will have been carried

portatus (-a, -um) ero portati (-ae, a) erimus
portatus (-a, -um) eris portati (-ae, a) eritis
portatus (-a, -um) erit portati (-ae, a) erunt

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