Participles Grammar Index Page

A Brief Summary of the Latin Participle

Simply put, a participle is a verbal adjective. In English, there are two participles: the present (working, seeing, walking) and the past (worked, seen, walked).In Latin there are three participles you need to know at this time: the present active, the perfect passive and the future active:

Present Active Infinitive Present Active Participle Perfect Passive Participle Future Active Participle
to carry
portans, portantis
portatus, portata, portatum
carried, having been carried
portaturus, portatura, portaturum
going to carry, about to carry
to teach
docens, docentis
doctus, docta, doctum
taught, having been taught
docturus, doctura, docturum
going to teach, about to teach
to lead
ducens, ducentis
ductus, ducta, ductum
led, having been led
ducturus, ductura, ducturum
going to lead, about to lead
to carry
capiens, capientis
captus, capta, captum
taken, having been taken
capturus, captura, capturum
going to take, about to take
to find
inveniens, invenientis
inventus, inventa, inventum
found, having been found
inventurus, inventura, inventurum
going to find, about to find

CAVE!!! In English the present participle is used in conjunction with the verb to be to form the progressive present tense: he is walking. NOT IN LATIN! In Latin, the present tense is used for the simple present -- he walks, the progressive present -- he is walking, and the emphatic present -- he does walk. All these meanings are encompassed in the one Latin form, ambulat.

Present A\ctive Participle

as with all forms in the Present System, use the Present Active Infinitive as the basis for the new form.

Perfect Passive Participle

As with all forms of the Perfect System, start with the 4th principal part of the verb. This happens to BE the perfect passive participle, unless the 4th principal part ends in -urus. In that case, there is NO passive form of the verb and,thus, NO perfect passive participle!

Future Active Participle

Here's a slight deviation from the rules. Use the 4th principal part of the verb, which is also the Perfect Passive Participle. Drop -us and add -urus, unless the 4th principal part of the verb already ends in -urus (see point 1 on the perfect passive participle above).

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